The code is finally live here! You can hear part of the audio experience in this section of the post.


The idea of using Spatial Audio to navigate isn’t new. Soundscape was originally incubated and developed on iOS by Microsoft Research. The app serves spatial audio to indicate the user’s destination and surroundings as if the sound comes from th ose places, by leveraging the global position and orientation obtained from AirPods’ the head tracking sensors and other sensors from user’s phones (such as GPS and magnetometer). The app, designed with visually impaired people in mind, provides a hands-free navigation experience, allowing users to navigate the world and get familiar with their surroundings.

However, the app is only available on iOS, which has only a relatively small market share, compared to its competitor, Android. Therefore, the cofonder of the project requested 8 of us in UCL Software Systems Engineering to port a minimal viable product of Soundscape to Android.

The project first went though the planning phase, where were discussed the requirements, the architecture, and the timeline. The app has several core features:

  • Navigation with audio beacon: the app indicates the user’s destination using a continuous audio cue that changes it’s quality based on the user’s orientation: the better the orientation is aligned with the destination, the more positive the sound cue is. We call this continuous sound cue as audio beacon.
  • Callouts of surroundings: the app calls out the user’s surroundings when they request so or when they move around. The callouts are also spatialized as if the callout sound originates from the place it describes. For example, when you walk along the street, you will hear "cafe 10 meters" from your right ( because there is a cafe cross the street 10 meters away), and "bus stop, 20 meters" from your front left (because you will see a bus stop if you turn left around in the upcoming crossing).
  • Markers and Routes: the app allows the user to save markers (a location they are interested in, such as a particular bus stop or grocery store) and routes (a sequence of markers that the user want to follow). This allows the user to navigate themselves to where they want to be easily.

We have also implemented many other essential functionalities such as settings that controls many aspects of audio, the integration with Google maps, and accessibility integrations with TalkBack and VoiceOver.

The architecture of Soundscape is designed to be event driven. This is because the audios are played based on the user’s location, orientation, and movement, which are all events that flow from sensors or user interactions.

We divided 8 of us into 4 groups, each responsible for a different component of the app:

  • UI team: all the UI components and data persistence
  • Map team: integrations with Google Maps and OpenStreetMap, along with utilities for computations and data pipeline of objects on the maps
  • Sensor team: sensor data retrieval as services and sensor data processing
  • Audio team: audio engine that uses Text-to-Speech to synthesis callouts from text, spatializes, mixes, and plays audio cues and callouts, and provides a event loop for callouts responding to user movements.
  • Both sensor team ang audio team work on a event bus that’s used to carry data and share among modules.

Because of the time constraint, there are still many great features that weren’t listed in our planning. However, we hope the future team can take over our work and continue making Soundscape a complete and optimal navigation solution for people who need it.

Technologies and The Audio Stuff


We decided to use Kotlin (with JNI) for developmemt, Jetpack Compose for UI, Room for persistence, and, latter in the course, hilt (dagger) for dependency injection and proto DataStore for lightweight data persistence duch as values in settings. We also used GitHub Actions as the CI/CD provider for testing, building, and delivering the artifacts to our client.

I had no previous experience with Android nor Kotlin. However, my past development on iOS allowed me to understand the design and pick up Android specific things pretty quickly.

The Audio Team

I worked in the audio team, along with Raimund, because I think the audio part, being one of the key components in the app, is the most challenging and interesting component of the app. It turned put to be true, because unlike iOS which provides many AMAZING high-level and yet POWERFUL audio APIs and access to AirPods’ head tracking sensors, Android has very limited APIs that allow the level of customizability and control we need.

The process of building the audio part has mainly three stages: making a audio renderer from a existing low-level audio engine, implementing state-aware players that can play, pause, and queue audios to be spatialized and rendered ( played) by the audio renderer, and creating and providing a audio service containing the functionalities to other parts of the app, along with an UI interaction commander that triggers callouts according to users’ need.

ACT I: The Audio Renderer

The first step was to find a suitable audio engine for audio spatialization and customization. It was clear to us that it is impossible to implement an engine from scratch and that there didn’t seem to exit anything high level in the kotlin world. We decided to use JNI and focus on engines implemented in C or C++. There are many choices on the market: Steam Audio, Oboe, OpenAL, FMOD, SoLoud, etc. We chose SoLoud because it is open source, powerful, and lightweight. The only down side is that SoLoud, even though it works, is not actively maintained: the existing audio backend support for Android (OpenSL ES) is already deprecated, and the new backend (AAidio) is out of horizon.

Thee process of choosing an engine wasn’t easy. I personally did not have any prior experience regarding audio processing, not to mention audio spatialization and mixing. I and Raimund spent quite some time figuring out what exactly we need and what each engine can offer. Raimund’s great information gathering ability led us to Steam Audio and SoLoud. We played and struggled with steam audio first, and found it offers spatialization (and mixing if I remember correctly), but it does not offer playing capability, one of the things we also desperately needed. SoLoud, on the other hand, offers everything we needed and stroke us with its simplicity and ease of use. After around a week of researching, we decided to go with SoLoud.

Once we’ve decided SoLoud is our choice, we started to creating APIs for kotlin world using JNI. This was basically done by an wrapper over SoLoud along with necessary data structures, such as bytes of audio source, and specific JNI bridge functions that creates and interacting with pointers to the wrapper instances. Together, we allowed kotlin to prepare audio sources for playing, play, pause, stop, and spatializes audio the sources, and thus we have a audio renderer, completing the first stage.

    Koltin_Code(Koltin Code)
    Soloud_Wrapper(SoLoud Wrapper)
    Koltin_Code -->|Interact Through JNI| Soloud_Wrapper

    subgraph Soloud_Wrapper [SoLoud Wrapper]
        SI(SoLoud Instance)
        AT(An Array of Audio Track Instances)
        NY(Number of Tracks)

    subgraph Func [Functions]
        CR(Create and Pass Wrapper Pointer To Kotlin)
        PR(Prepare Audio Source for spatialization)
        WT(Wait for, or block until, Playing to Finish)
        ST(Stop and Reset Prepared Audio Source)

One of the tricky things we encountered was changing the audio cues based the quality of user orientation. As mentioned, the closer the user is facing the destination, the more positive the sound cue is. Internally, we have 2 to 4 tracks per sound cue; every track has the same length and each track has a different positiveness. To allow transition from one track to another, we first decided to natively play all tracks at the same time but only allow the one appropriate track to have an audible volume while others’ volumes are set to 0; as the user changes their orientation, different tracks will have their volumes changed accordingly. However, because SoLoud does not provide a way to do this batch action: turn up the volume of one track and turn down that of the other, one has to do this one by one, which incurs delays in between the changes and breaking the continuity of what the user would hear. We then wrote our own batch action and achieved a better effect, although it is still not perfect. We are eventually moved to a beat system, mimicking what’s been done on the iOS side. Essentially, each sound cue had number of beats and these beats are marks of spots on which changing tracks wont be noticeable. This also means all of the tracks of the cue have the same number of beats, meaning even though the currently playing track can be changed at any time, we only change what’s been played on the beat, creating a seamless transition. To do so efficiently, we are creating a audio data source that’s aware of the bytes of all tracks and the number of beats; the audio data source serves the bytes of the track that’s currently playing and starts to serve the bytes of the next track when the end of a beat is reached.

We also swapped out the deprecated OpenSL ES audio backend to the modern AAudio to ensure the longevity of this product.

I attached several audio samples below for you to get an understanding of what you would experience. Make sure you wear your headphones for the best experience!


This is a on-axis audio, a positive sound representing facing the right direction:

And this is an off-axis audio, a less positive sound representing facing a less accurate direction:

And together, when facing in different directions, you can experience the transitions between on-axis and off-axis sounds.

The following is a sample recorded from the iOS version.

And this is a sample recorded from our Android version

previous attempt

The following was a recording from our previous attempt. We did not do anything more than just facing different directions, same as what’s been down in previous recordings.

ACT II: The Players

Once we had the renderer, we needed to invent players to play, pause, and queue audio sources to be rendered by the renderer. In our design, there are two kinds of players in the app: the one that plays audio beacon continuously ( meaning it’s always playing unless it’s paused or stopped) and the one that plays callouts discretely (meaning it plays one thing at a time in the queue, and stops if there are nothing to play). The two kinds of players share many comment processes and states, thus finding the balance and creating a common abstract class that can be reused in both players are crucial and intricate. I am pretty happy and proud of the abstraction I’ve created.

The hardest part turned out to be dealing with threading (or coroutines) and race conditions. This is due to the nature of an application which uses the main thread for UI and other background threads for various tasks. Audio playing is counted as one of the background tasks and deserves its own thread. We decided to do it in kotlin´s way: coroutines. Because the players are stateful, we need to manage the life of spawned coroutine jobs for playing and sensor updates. In addition, since the playing job mainly uses JNI code which doesn’t provide suspension points like some of the native coroutine utilities, we had to manually do the hassle of checking if the job is canceled. Luckily, we have testing to help us ensure the players are working as expected and the development of players was mostly smooth.

    subgraph CP ["Player (for audio beacon and callouts)"]
        direction TB
        PLAYING -->|pausing the audio| PAUSED
        PLAYING -->|finishing the current playing and exhausting the play queue| STOPPED
        PLAYING -->|stopping the audio| STOPPED
        PAUSED -->|resuming the audio| PLAYING
        PAUSED -->|stopping the audio| STOPPED
        STOPPED -->|preparing the audio source| PAUSED

        subgraph STOPPED
            direction LR
            s1["🚫 Location update"]
            s2["🚫 Orientation update"]
            s3["🚫 Playing coroutine job"]
            s4["🚫 Audio resources"]

        subgraph PLAYING
            direction LR
            pl1["✅ Location update"]
            pl2["✅ Orientation update"]
            pl3["✅ Playing coroutine job"]
            pl4["✅ Audio resources"]

        subgraph PAUSED
            direction LR
            pu1["🚫 Location update"]
            pu2["🚫 Orientation update"]
            pu3["🚫 Playing coroutine job"]
            pu4["✅ Audio resources"]

ACT III: The Audio Service, Commander, and the Callout Looper

Once players are ready to manage and serve audio, we need a service that ensures the liveness of players even when the app is in the background. We designed the service to contain all the audio components including a continuous player, a discrete player, a text-to-speech engine, and a callout looper. Additionally, we implemented a commander that processes users’ interactions and triggers corresponding callouts. Conveniently, we allow the service to be paused and resumed when user requests so; when paused, the service pauses all players and their updates from sensors, saving battery and CPU usage. The service also serves as an entry point and a bridge so that the audio components are initialized properly through the service and other parts of the app can use them easily.

Since the service is essentially a collection of independent component part instances, we use kotlin’s "mixin" to simplify and make the code more readable. A mixin can be create through delegation. Thus, each component part resides in its own mixin class, and the service class is a composition of these mixin classes. This allows us to easily add or remove components, code a particular component without distractions, and test each component separately.

We also used data injection architecture to inject necessary components using hilt. This made our life easier because we don’t need to create and manage the dependencies manually. Instead, the dependencies are mostly provided from a central place, allowing us to add, remove, or change dependencies easily. A rough structure is shown as below.

    SD(Persistence Storage of Markers and Routes) -->|injected to| CalloutGenerator
    context -->|injected to| CalloutGenerator
    Commander -->|injected to| ViewModels
    CalloutGenerator -->|injected to| AudioService
    AudioSettings -->|injected to| AudioService
    AudioSettings -->|injected to| SettingsViewModels
    CalloutGenerator -->|injected to| Commander
    Settings -->|injected and transformed to| AudioSettings

The callout looper is the last thing added to the audio service. As we discussed, the looper calls out user’s surroundings based on user’s movements.

    looper_initialized[looper initialized] -->|on start| loop_cond
    loop_cond[/block until movement is received/]
    loop_cond -->|movement received| get_callouts[get callout data queue based on movements]
    get_callouts --> queue_empty{if the queue is empty}
    queue_empty -->|yes, wait for next update| loop_cond
    queue_empty -->|no| dequeue[dequeue first]
    dequeue --> dup_cond{"if the dequeued callout 
  is seen recently"}
dup_cond -->|yes, skip|queue_empty
dup_cond -->|no, callout| callout[submit callout data to the discrete player]
callout --> queue_empty
loop_cond -->|on stop|looper_initialized

Some Miscellaneous Stuff

Surprise, surprise! I also did quite a lot other stuff than being in the the audio team.


I’m a big fan of automation so I did the CI/CD pipelines: one for building the project and uploading the signed artifact to an Google Drive for sharing with our client, the other one for instrumented testing and unit testing during pushing and PRs.


Since I’m in charge of the CI/CD pipeline, which covers most of the building and testing process, I wrote the documentations to explain all the processes to make future contributions smooth.

Some UI and Optimization

Part of integration of the audio stuff required me to write some UI, such as selectors for different types of beacon tones. We used Jetpack Compose, declarative type of UI composition similar to SwiftUI and Vue, which is quite convenient and my past experience in web developement and Swift UI development helped a lot. Dependency injection and MVVM model was used extensively in those UIs and allowed to me manage the UI and sync the UI with settings and audio part easily.

During my UI integration, I found several places where Kotlin flows are abused. Because it was the first time of using Kotlin for many of us in the team, learning all bits of the language wasn’t easy. My implementation of the event bus helped me gain extra understanding towards Kotlin coroutines and thus the usages of flows.

A common mistake made was when piping and transforming data from one flow to another. Suppose there are two flows (or pipelines), one for bags of flour and the other one for buckets of waters, and we want to create a flow of dough out of the flour and water from the flow. It is tempting to create an empty flow and an "actor" who picks out one bag of flour and and one bucket of water, put it through some processing, and then drop the processed dough to the new empty flow (shown in the highlight).

fun doughProcessing(flour: String, water: String): String {
    return "dough = $flour + $water"

class SomeViewModel : ViewModel() {
    // usually provided by some other dependencies
    val flourFlow = (0 until 5).map { "flour" }.asFlow()
    val waterFlow = (0 until 5).map { "water" }.asFlow()

    val doughFlow = MutableStateFlow<String?>(null)

    init {  
        viewModelScope.launch {
            flourFlow.collect { flour ->
                waterFlow.collect { water ->
                    val dough = doughProcessing(flour, water)
                    doughFlow.value = dough

This way of working with flow is both verbose and not efficient (and incorrect sometimes). It makes more sense to transform and pipe data using flow operators, just like functional programming:

fun doughProcessing(flour: String, water: String): String {
    return "dough = $flour + $water"

class SomeViewModel : ViewModel() {
    // usually provided by some other dependencies
    val flourFlow = (0 until 5).map { "flour" }.asFlow()
    val waterFlow = (0 until 5).map { "water" }.asFlow()

    val doughFlow = flourFlow  
        .combine(waterFlow) { flour, water ->
            doughProcessing(flour, water)
        .stateIn(viewModelScope, SharingStarted.Eagerly, null)

Some Lessons

This project was my first time working with a large group of people in a large codebase. The experience has been unique and very different from working on projects myself or with few close friends.

The main difference comes from communication. As the number of people increases, the effort for communication increases factorially (which is essentially exponential). We had four teams working on four features in parallel and it becomes hard to communicate what one’s wish for the application to become. I’m a good engineer and my working habits lures me to completes the work until perfection, even though the responsibility may belong to other people. I force myself communicate my idea and try to convince other people it is a good idea, instead of jumping on the problem and solve it directly. This kinda of communication often happens during code reviews, making it particular hard because I don’t want my wording to be discouraging while still provide suggestions and ideas, and I don’t want to sound underestimating their good work.

I also experience the challenge of managing a large codebase in which parallel works happen relative frequent. We sort of followed agile methodology and met with our client once a week to report our progress and adjust our goals. As a result, people tended to work in the first half of a sprint and merge their contributions near the end of the sprint. It was fine most of the time because the teams worked in different components that didn’t have much clash most of the time. But when it did, merging was difficult. There were three things I remembered the most.

  • Automated tools like linting, testing, and building: we didn’t start with a automatic style checking setup such as pre-commit. I, in charge of most of the DevOps, investigated a bit and didn’t find a suitable linter for Android projects. As a result, when people forget to turn on formatting on save or optimizing imports on save, reviewing and merging turns into hell, since you don’t know what are the actual changes and what should be accepted or safely deleted.

    I was lucky that I could setup functioning testing and building CICD for the project. Passing the checks has been like lullaby, comforting and reassuring. The CICD also allows us to share the artifacts with our client easily, since our repository was set to private to avoid conflicts and piracy on our work.

  • Structural changes: they are expensive and can be devastating to the teams’ goal and speed. In the middle of the project, we decided to add hilt to enable dependency injection and support our development. The transition to hilt took Raimund almost two weeks, if I remember correctly. The change was huge and we were all scared of introducing breaking changes that can be hard to fix and hog our development. Moreover, I remember I had some time off because I needed to wait for the dependency inject to be merge before some of the audio stuff can be started. In the end, the structural change did introduce some breaking change that took us non-trivial amount work to fix, which was luckily not on the expensive side and did bring ease to later developments.

  • Best practices and inner peace: there are so many best practices I learnt, ranging from management to git to kotlin and Android specifics. However, not everyone follows them and some of the code did make me a bit mad. For example, we have database that doesn’t have a migration setup, meaning we could run into trouble when we change our schema. I’m always pursuing for perfection and this aspect I can’t control made me a bit nervous and drove me a bit crazy (just a bit, I promise). I ended up improving some of the content and set peace with myself to accept the imperfect parts in the project.

For now, theses are the thoughts that are on top of my mind. I’ll keep update with anything I can think of.